Advanced Drying Technologies
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Nevertheless, the implementation of electromagnetic waves could be one of the most promising drying techniques in the future, especially because of its potential for savings in energy and time, and providing high quality products. Dielectric heating is based on volumetric heat generation throughout the material being dried.
Radio frequencies cover the electromagnetic spectra with frequencies of 1 to MHz, but special care should be taken here: only specific frequencies have been designated within both radio frequency RF and microwave MW spectra for industrial applications RF drying can be appropriate for large loads such as paper and timber drying, where high power and short duration are required. Microwaves cover electromagnetic wave spectrum with wavelengths from 1 mm to 1 m. They are the most extensive researched electromagnetic waves in drying so far, but as with all other methods, there is a lack of documented energy analysis in most publications published to date, and the majority of papers dealing with MW are related to the influence of MW-assisted drying on the quality of specific product.
Biological materials are very attractive for MW drying, because they are heat sensitive and can benefit from the "targeted" heating obtained with MW. Tulasidas et al. For convective drying, specific energy consumption ranged between Enhancement of MW-assisted drying can be achieved by introducing intermittent MW power exposure, as opposed to continuous exposure.
In the work of Shivhare et al. The total drying time was increased, but the total MW exposure was shorter, giving the product of higher quality. Beaudry et al. Further improvement of MW drying can be achieved in drying under vacuum. Yongsawatdigul and Gunasekaran calculated drying efficiency using Equation 8 for MW-vacuum dried cranberries, and showed that pulsed MW power mode is more energy efficient than the continuous mode.
Sunjka et al. Cumulative energy efficiency ranged between 0.
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Afzal et al. Sonic drying is usually used for viscous products difficult to dry with other methods, and is especially suitable for temperature-sensitive products because it is a non-thermal drying separation or dewatering process.
STELA drying technology – industry solutions
Sound used in industrial applications has low frequencies 20 to 40 kHz Kudra and Mujumdar, Unfortunately, there is only a few papers which consider the energy requirements for sonic drying, stating that consumption of sonic energy per kg of evaporated water is approximately the same or even higher as in convective drying Borisov and Gynkina, However, when sound effect is used in pulse-combustion drying, which combines heat and sound, this vibrating air stream removes water much faster than conventional air drying, and uses 3.
Superheated steam SHS serves here as a drying medium, supplying heat to a drying product and carrying off evaporated moisture. This method has been industrially implemented, but so far on a very small scale. The advantages are that no oxidative or combustion reactions take place in or near the dryer, higher drying rates in some cases , and it can permit pasteurization of food products Kudra and Mujumdar, The disadvantages are a more complex system, heat sensitive materials are prone to damage, and there is limited documented experience about this method Kudra and Mujumdar, These savings were made by heat recovery from exhausting SHS and eliminating the need to heat from ambient temperature.
Similar results were obtained by Fitzpatrick and Palmer , during drying of dairy sludge.
Advanced Drying Technologies, Second Edition
Heat Pump Assisted Drying. A heat pump works on the principle of refrigeration to cool an air stream and condense the water contained in it. This renders the air dry and also recovers the latent heat of evaporation through water vapour removal which permits air recirculation.
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Prasertsan and Saen-saby showed that heat pump drying HPD had the lowest operating cost when compared to electrically heated convective dryers and direct-fired dryers. They pointed out that one important disadvantage of this method is that it uses an expensive energy source: electricity needed to run the compressor, but it could be economically feasible during the first stages of drying for high moisture products.
In their review on HPD, Perera and Rahman state that HPD has higher drying efficiency, offers better product quality, and it is environmentally friendly. SMER values ranged from 1. The economical role of HPD was investigated by Sosle et al.
Industrial Drying Technologies: Current Status and Future Trends
They confirmed that HPD is useful for materials with high initial moisture content and in regions with high humidity of ambient air. They compared HPD with convective drying and pointed out that overall comparison should incorporate four aspects: capital investment, energy efficiency, product throughput, and quality. Further advancements have been made in heat pump drying which employ loop thermosyphons, which are a type of heat pipe Phaphuangwittayakul et al.
A loop thermosyphon consists of evaporator and condenser sections, with tubes connecting the two sections.
When the working fluid is condensed, it is returned to the evaporator due to gravity Phaphuangwittayakul et al. Advanced Drying Technology converting wastes into resources info 2gryphon.
Gryphon Prepares for Expansion. Gryphon Awarded Third Patent. Large Dryers — Model series. Digested Organics partners with Gryphon Environmental to deliver cost-effective drying solutions. Gryphon Dryer Technical Video Presentation. Waste Heat or Digester Gas. Re-circulating Air Stream. Introduction Video — Gryphon Dryer. Leveringstid: Sendes innen 7 virkedager.
Avbryt Send e-post. With the literature on drying widely scattered, Advanced Drying Technologies for Foods compiles under one cover concise, authoritative, up-to-date assessments of modern drying technologies applied to foods.