Biology and Anatomy & Physiology Helps: The Cell
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There may also be protrusions such as microvilli , cilia, bristles, spines and tubercles. Marcello Malpighi , the father of microscopical anatomy, discovered that plants had tubules similar to those he saw in insects like the silk worm. He observed that when a ring-like portion of bark was removed on a trunk a swelling occurred in the tissues above the ring, and he unmistakably interpreted this as growth stimulated by food coming down from the leaves, and being captured above the ring.
Arthropods comprise the largest phylum in the animal kingdom with over a million known invertebrate species. Insects possess segmented bodies supported by a hard-jointed outer covering, the exoskeleton , made mostly of chitin. The segments of the body are organized into three distinct parts, a head, a thorax and an abdomen. The thorax has three pairs of segmented legs , one pair each for the three segments that compose the thorax and one or two pairs of wings.
The abdomen is composed of eleven segments, some of which may be fused and houses the digestive , respiratory , excretory and reproductive systems. Spiders a class of arachnids have four pairs of legs; a body of two segments—a cephalothorax and an abdomen. Spiders have no wings and no antennae. They have mouthparts called chelicerae which are often connected to venom glands as most spiders are venomous. They have a second pair of appendages called pedipalps attached to the cephalothorax.
These have similar segmentation to the legs and function as taste and smell organs. At the end of each male pedipalp is a spoon-shaped cymbium that acts to support the copulatory organ. In BCE, the Edwin Smith Papyrus , an Ancient Egyptian medical text , described the heart , its vessels, liver , spleen , kidneys , hypothalamus , uterus and bladder , and showed the blood vessels diverging from the heart. The Ebers Papyrus c. Ancient Greek anatomy and physiology underwent great changes and advances throughout the early medieval world.
Human Anatomy Study Tips
Over time, this medical practice expanded by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body were made, which have contributed towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and the nervous system.
The Hellenistic Egyptian city of Alexandria was the stepping-stone for Greek anatomy and physiology. Alexandria not only housed the biggest library for medical records and books of the liberal arts in the world during the time of the Greeks, but was also home to many medical practitioners and philosophers. Great patronage of the arts and sciences from the Ptolemy rulers helped raise Alexandria up, further rivalling the cultural and scientific achievements of other Greek states. Some of the most striking advances in early anatomy and physiology took place in Hellenistic Alexandria.
These two physicians helped pioneer human dissection for medical research. They also conducted vivisections on the cadavers of condemned criminals, which was considered taboo until the Renaissance—Herophilus was recognized as the first person to perform systematic dissections. Herophilus's knowledge of the human body has provided vital input towards understanding the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system, and characterizing the course of disease.
He was able to distinguish the sensory and the motor nerves in the human body and believed that air entered the lungs and heart, which was then carried throughout the body. His distinction between the arteries and veins—the arteries carrying the air through the body, while the veins carried the blood from the heart was a great anatomical discovery.
Erasistratus was also responsible for naming and describing the function of the epiglottis and the valves of the heart, including the tricuspid. Great feats were made during the third century in both the digestive and reproductive systems. Herophilus was able to discover and describe not only the salivary glands, but the small intestine and liver. He recognized that spermatozoa were produced by the testes and was the first to identify the prostate gland.
The anatomy of the muscles and skeleton is described in the Hippocratic Corpus , an Ancient Greek medical work written by unknown authors. Praxagoras identified the difference between arteries and veins. Also in the 4th century BCE, Herophilos and Erasistratus produced more accurate anatomical descriptions based on vivisection of criminals in Alexandria during the Ptolemaic dynasty. In the 2nd century, Galen of Pergamum , an anatomist , clinician , writer and philosopher ,  wrote the final and highly influential anatomy treatise of ancient times.
Anatomy developed little from classical times until the sixteenth century; as the historian Marie Boas writes, "Progress in anatomy before the sixteenth century is as mysteriously slow as its development after is startlingly rapid".
Human Anatomy Study Tips
It describes the body in the order followed in Mondino's dissections, starting with the abdomen, then the thorax, then the head and limbs. It was the standard anatomy textbook for the next century. Leonardo da Vinci — was trained in anatomy by Andrea del Verrocchio. Andreas Vesalius — Latinized from Andries van Wezel , professor of anatomy at the University of Padua , is considered the founder of modern human anatomy.
In England, anatomy was the subject of the first public lectures given in any science; these were given by the Company of Barbers and Surgeons in the 16th century, joined in by the Lumleian lectures in surgery at the Royal College of Physicians. In the United States, medical schools began to be set up towards the end of the 18th century. Classes in anatomy needed a continual stream of cadavers for dissection and these were difficult to obtain.
Philadelphia, Baltimore and New York were all renowned for body snatching activity as criminals raided graveyards at night, removing newly buried corpses from their coffins. The practice was halted in Britain by the Anatomy Act of ,   while in the United States, similar legislation was enacted after the physician William S. Forbes of Jefferson Medical College was found guilty in of "complicity with resurrectionists in the despoliation of graves in Lebanon Cemetery".
He was responsible for setting up the system of three years of "pre-clinical" academic teaching in the sciences underlying medicine, including especially anatomy. This system lasted until the reform of medical training in and As well as teaching, he collected many vertebrate skeletons for his museum of comparative anatomy , published over 70 research papers, and became famous for his public dissection of the Tay Whale. He noticed that the frequently fatal fever occurred more often in mothers examined by medical students than by midwives.
The students went from the dissecting room to the hospital ward and examined women in childbirth. Semmelweis showed that when the trainees washed their hands in chlorinated lime before each clinical examination, the incidence of puerperal fever among the mothers could be reduced dramatically.
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Before the modern medical era, the main means for studying the internal structures of the body were dissection of the dead and inspection , palpation and auscultation of the living. It was the advent of microscopy that opened up an understanding of the building blocks that constituted living tissues. Technical advances in the development of achromatic lenses increased the resolving power of the microscope and around , Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann identified that cells were the fundamental unit of organization of all living things.
Study of small structures involved passing light through them and the microtome was invented to provide sufficiently thin slices of tissue to examine. Staining techniques using artificial dyes were established to help distinguish between different types of tissue.
Advances in the fields of histology and cytology began in the late 19th century  along with advances in surgical techniques allowing for the painless and safe removal of biopsy specimens. The invention of the electron microscope brought a great advance in resolution power and allowed research into the ultrastructure of cells and the organelles and other structures within them. About the same time, in the s, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the crystal structures of proteins, nucleic acids and other biological molecules gave rise to a new field of molecular anatomy.
Equally important advances have occurred in non-invasive techniques for examining the interior structures of the body. X-rays can be passed through the body and used in medical radiography and fluoroscopy to differentiate interior structures that have varying degrees of opaqueness. Magnetic resonance imaging , computed tomography , and ultrasound imaging have all enabled examination of internal structures in unprecedented detail to a degree far beyond the imagination of earlier generations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the anatomy of plants, see Plant anatomy. For other uses, see Anatomy disambiguation. The study of the structure of organisms and their parts. See also: Neuroanatomy. See also: Comparative anatomy. Main article: Fish anatomy. Main article: Amphibian anatomy. Main article: Reptile anatomy. Main article: Bird anatomy.