Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Volume 3, T-Z

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In addition, there were 9 ad litem judges, making 25 in all. There was an additional pool of 9 further ad literim judges who would be called on in the case of a judge being absent. The column denoted by indicates the order of precedence.


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The Office of the Prosecutor was divided into various units at the height of its activity, including the Investigations Division and the Prosecution Division: [20]. After an intense and precisely targeted campaign of a number of international non-governmental organizations, which aimed at raising awareness of gendered violence at the ICTR, [23] the trial of Jean-Paul Akayesu established the legal precedent that genocidal rape falls within the act of genocide. In this respect, it appears clearly to the chamber that the acts of rape and sexual violence, as other acts of serious bodily and mental harm committed against the Tutsi, reflected the determination to make Tutsi women suffer and to mutilate them even before killing them, the intent being to destroy the Tutsi group while inflicting acute suffering on its members in the process.

Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war.

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The trial against " hate media " began on 23 October It was charged with the prosecution of the media which encouraged the genocide of They were charged with genocide, incitement to genocide, and crimes against humanity, before and during the period of the genocides of On 3 December , the court found all three defendants guilty and sentenced Nahimana and Ngeze to life imprisonment and Barayagwiza to imprisonment for 35 years.

On 28 November , the Appeals Chamber partially allowed appeals against conviction from all three men, reducing their sentences to 30 years' imprisonment for Nahimana, 32 years' imprisonment for Barayagwiza and 35 years' imprisonment for Ngeze. No prosecutions have been brought against the founders, sponsors or anyone related to Radio Muhabura , a media whose pro- RPF messages were broadcast throughout the country during the — war. This case was under the regular jurisdiction of the French courts because French citizens were also killed in the plane crash.

The majority of genocide cases were handled by the so-called gacaca courts, a modernized customary dispute resolution mechanism. The ICTR indicted a total of 96 individuals. Four individuals remain at large as fugitives and if captured they will be tried before the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals. The ICTR convicted 61 individuals: 32 of whom are currently serving sentences, 22 of whom have completed their sentences, and seven of whom died while serving their sentences. The Tribunal acquitted 14 individuals and transferred the cases against 10 individuals to national jurisdictions.

The Tribunal ended proceedings against seven individuals before a final judgment was rendered: two of whom had their charges dismissed by the Tribunal, two of whom had their charges withdrawn by the Prosecutor, and three of whom died. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial Centre.

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Initial events Chronology Gikondo massacre Nyarubuye massacre. Parties responsible. People indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal. Bibliography Filmography. Main article: Jean-Paul Akayesu. Retrieved Archived from the original on Encyclopedia Britannica.

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Nmaju supra note 41 pp. Cerone supra note 68 p. Bergsmo and Webb supra note 32 p. Gallimore supra note 41 p. Jallow supra note 41 p. MacKinnon supra note p. December p. Zahar supra note p. Shannon E. Weinstein eds.


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Dieng supra note p. Caroll supra note 52 p. In 10 people were detained in Rwanda in the count was already at detainees i. Amnesty International supra note Powers supra note Neuffer supra note Westberg supra note 42 p.

Nsanzuwera supra note 41 p. Onsea supra note p. To browse Academia. Skip to main content.

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Zachary Kaufman. The ratione tempore temporal jurisdiction was limited to crimes committed between January 1 and December 31, Finally, the ratione personae et ratione loci personal and territorial jurisdictions were limited to crimes committed by Rwandans in the territory of Rwanda or of neighboring states, as well as by non-Rwandan citizens for crimes committed in Rwanda.

Commentary: Indonesian Military Committing Crimes Against Humanity In West Papua (TMBS 105)

Political Background The Rwandan genocide of primarily ethnic Tutsi but also some politically moderate ethnic Hutu erupted on April 6, , when assailants who are still unknown shot down a plane carrying the Rwandan and Burundian presidents, both Hutu, and their entourage see entry on Rwanda. Soon, officials of individual states and the UN, plus some Rwandans, began denouncing the atrocities and declaring a need for accountability. Two weeks later, on April 30, the Security Council suggested that the response to atrocities in Rwanda should take the form of prosecution, but did not endorse a specific forum.

On July 1, the Security Council passed Resolution , which declared that Rwandan atrocity perpetrators would be held indi- vidually accountable and requested the UN Secretary-General to establish a commission of experts to collect evidence of those crimes.


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The genocide ceased in mid-July, approximately days after it began, when the RPF defeated the remaining genocidal forces. On October 1, the commission of experts on Rwanda published its interim report. The commis- sion of experts stated its preference for the latter option, because, the commission argued, such a shared tribunal would be more efficient and more likely to maintain consistency in the interpretation and application of international law.