Surpassing Realism: The Politics of European Integration since 1945
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Surpassing realism: the politics of European integration since - Mark Gilbert - Google книги
Unavailable for purchase. Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. Choose Store. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Skip this list. Imperial decline and decolonization, the threat and then fall of communism, the impact of American policy, and the democratization of the Mediterranean and central European countries are just some of the contemporaneous historical developments whose intersecting stories have been woven into this book's fabric.
The European Union remains a remarkable experiment in regional cooperation, but the aura of success that has enveloped the process of integration for much of the period since the s is dissipating in the wake of dire economic collapses and heated immigration debates. Gilbert concludes by examining the mood of crisis that has taken hold in the EU since and considers the Union's future. The first chapter covers the immediate postwar situation, the activities of the European movement, and first attempts at integration up until the Schuman Declaration of May The second chapter describes the establishment of the three Communities until The third chapter finishes with the end of the s and covers the launch of the Common Agricultural Policy as well as the Empty Chair Crisis.
In his second chapter on the years of consolidation Konsolidierungsphase Elvert follows the long and winding road to establishing the European Union from until Ambitious plans for political, as well as economic and monetary union, institutional reform and direct elections were developed in the early s. However, these plans took a very long time to be realised. Hence, he traces the gradual steps towards the Single European Act, and subsequently to European Union. The Maastricht Treaty eventually established both monetary and political union and strengthened the supranational institutions.
Still, he devotes a lot of space to the extension of policies. With respect to European integration, Judt distinguishes the period from to The Single Market Programme was complemented by new policies of European solidarity and required the abolition of national vetoes.
The evaluation of the period after , respectively after Maastricht, is ambiguous among these studies. Dinan appears less sanguine about continued progress. Falling turnout in European elections also seems to indicate the continued distance from what average citizens perceive as an elite project upon which they have no influence.
Opinions concerning this problem and its solutions differ: Elvert and Dinan rightly warn against overestimating the results of the referenda. Referenda are very blunt instruments for expressing dissatisfaction. In France, for example, many citizens were not necessarily against European integration, but would have preferred deeper integration and more transparent decision-making.
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Well in line with his interpretation of the past, he continues to believe in political leadership. He suggests that after a period of reflection, European decision-makers should issue clear directions where they want Europe to go, which citizens could understand and possibly agree upon in a referendum. Realistically, clear and understandable directions are increasingly difficult to achieve in an ever-wider Union with a growing divergence of interests and attitudes towards European integration.
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There is a dilemma: Closing the democratic deficit implies ceding sovereignty, which in many countries is anathema to politicians and voters alike. At the end of the day, European constitutional politics are the result of interstate bargaining and concomitant compromises, which tend to be complex and do not always resound well with the majority of Europeans. Compromise and complexity, thus, cannot be avoided. It is the role of the European public sphere to mediate between citizens and policy makers, to hold policy-makers accountable, and to enable opinion formation.
https://naimarmefolte.tk Judt is rather pessimistic: The communications problem of European politics is aggravated by the lingering effects of decades of technocratic unconcern for public opinion. Towards a theory of democratic functionalism, in: European Journal of Social Theory 7 , pp. For the historians' perspective on the European Public Sphere cf.